CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 9 The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings
Students can learn from School Connect Online about living organisms and their surroundings in this chapter. We will get to know about living things surrounded by plants, trees, animals, birds, microbes, and other living and non-living things. With the help of a scientific approach, we can differentiate between living and nonliving things. We will also learn about different kinds of habitat and adaptation. Students will also understand the characteristics of living things that make them unique and different from non -living things.
The different topics covered in CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 9 are tabulated below:
|9.1||Organisms And The Surroundings Where They Live|
|9.2||Habitat And Adaptation|
|9.3||A Journey Through Different Habitats|
|9.4||Characteristics Of The Living Beings|
Ex : 9.1 – Organisms And The Surroundings Where They Live
We all are surrounded by plants, trees, animals, birds, microbes, and other living and nonliving things based on certain parameters. Scientists were able to differentiate between :
- Living things
- Non-living things
Ex : 9.2 – Habitat And Adaptation
Animals benefit a lot from their habitats. For example, rabbits live in a forest habitat by building a burrow in the soil; they get food from the plant products; they obtain fresh air they breathe. Habitat provides air, food, water and shelter to an animal.
The place where an organism naturally lives and reproduces is called a habitat.
The soil and climate conditions on land are varied in different parts of the earth. Organisms tend to adjust to the conditions and environment they live in. The unique characteristics of plants and animals that enable them to successfully survive in a particular environment are called as adaptation.
- The sunlight is essential for the survival of the biotic components as the sun is the ultimate source of energy for all living things.
- The sunlight affects growth, flowering, seed germination and in many other ways in plants. Indoor plants put in the shade for a long time grow faster but become delicate and weak.
- Light also affects animals. Animals living in caves and burrows where sunlight cannot reach have very much reduced eyes e.g., Proteus. Amblyopsis do not have eyes.
- Nocturnal animals: Some animals like bats, cockroaches and owls are called nocturnal as they are active during the night.
- Temperature regulates growth, movement, reproduction, morphology and other aspects of life.
- Animals living in hot areas e.g., snakes, desert rats and lizards are not able to get sufficient water. They have thick skin and do not sweat.
- Desert animals e.g., camels have long legs. Long legs help them to lift their body above the ground. Thus, they can avoid direct contact with the hot ground.
All living organisms need water for their survival.
Aquatic plants have the following adaptations:
- The root system is poorly developed.
- Air-filled cavities found inside the body make them spongy and buoyant.
- Leaves in submerged plants are thin and narrow; while in floating plants, they are big and flat with a waxy coating.
Desert plants carry the following adaptations:
- Well-developed root systems.
- Stem is succulent and spongy which helps in storage of water. It is also green and performs photosynthesis.
- Stomata (sunken) are less in number.
- Leaves are either very small or converted into spines.
Fish has the following adaptation:
- Tapering ends.
- Slippery scales that help in swimming.
- Gills for respiration.
Ex : 9.3 – A Journey Through Different Habitats
- When organisms live in water, this place of living is known as aquatic habitat.
- Ponds, lakes, rivers, oceans, etc., are examples of aquatic habitats.
- Water is a medium in aquatic habitats.
- When organisms live on land, this place of living is known as terrestrial habitat.
- Forests, deserts, orchards, tea gardens and mountains are examples of terrestrial habitat.
- Air is the medium in terrestrial habitats.
- The mountain is a special terrestrial habitat where temperature is very low and most of the areas are covered with snow.
- The plants like grasses, mosses and lichens and animals like snow bear, fox, water fowl, musk deer and wolf are found commonly in this habitat.
Ex : 9.4 – Characteristics Of The Living Beings
Life is a process seen only in living objects in the form of growth, movement, feeding or eating, sensitivity, respiration, excretion and reproduction. All living things on this earth possess certain basic characteristics.
Life Span: Each animal lives for a certain period. This period is referred to as life span.
These include the following:
- Cellular structure
Growth is defined as the permanent irreversible increase in the size and total weight of the living object.
- Animals grow for a certain period.
- In the case of trees, growth takes place throughout life.
- Growth in plants and animals is influenced by several factors like food, climate, lifestyle, etc.
Change in the position from one place to another is called movement.
- Locomotion: The movement involving a change of place in animals is called locomotion.
- Animals use wings (bird), fins (fish), limbs (cow, horse, buffalo, man) for locomotion.
- Plants generally show movements of various parts, e.g., flower buds open, roots grow away from light, when we touch the leaves of mimosa (touch me not), they shrivel up.
Cellular Structure :
- Cells constitute plants and animal bodies.
- Cells are organised in various ways in different organisms.
- They help in carrying out various functions like nutrition, respiration, etc.
- They are called the structural and functional unit of all living organisms.
The process of taking food by organisms is generally referred to as nutrition or nourishment. Food and water are essential for life. Food provides energy that helps in the growth of the body and its repair.
- Autotrophs: They are the living forms which can synthesize their own food by photosynthesis, e.g., green plants.
- Heterotrophs: They are living organisms which cannot manufacture their own food, e.g., all animals.
- Saprophytes: The living organisms which obtain their nutrition from the dead plants and animals are called saprophytes.
- Parasites: The plants and animals that feed on the other living bodies are called parasites.
- Respiration is a process in which oxygen taken by an organism combines with reserved food, undergoes oxidation and releases energy.
- Breathing: Taking in air and releasing it in animals is referred to as breathing.
- We inhale oxygen (O2) and exhale carbon dioxide (CO2).
- The removal of excretory waste from the body of a living being is called excretion.
- The process of removal of wastes in plants is referred to as secretion.
- Latex, resin and gum are wastes for the plant but useful for us.
Response to Stimuli :
- Living beings respond to changes in their surroundings.
- Stimuli: The factors like food, water, light, touch, gravitational force, etc., are stimuli (stimulus) to which plants and animals respond.
- The process of a living being to produce of its own kind is called reproduction.
- Life produces life.
- Plants reproduce through seeds. Some plants also reproduce through vegetative parts.
- Adaptation: The change in specific features and habits which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat is called adaptation.
- Aquatic habitat: When organisms live in water, their place of living is known as aquatic habitat.
- Biotic component: Living things of a habitat form its biotic component.
- Excretion: The removal of nitrogenous waste substances from the body of a living being is called excretion.
- Growth: Increase in size and total weight of the living organism is called growth.
- Habitat: The place where an organism survives, flourishes and reproduces is called its habitat.
- Living things: These are the things which need water, air and nutrients for their survival.
- Reproduction: The process of a living being to produce of its own kind is called reproduction.
- Respiration: Respiration is a process in which air taken by an organism combines with the reserved food, undergoes oxidation and releases energy.
- Stimulus: The factors like food, water, light, touch, gravitational force, etc., are stimuli to which plants and animals respond.
CBSE Notes for Class 6 Science Free Download for All Chapters
|CBSE Class 6 Science Study Notes||CBSE Class 6 Science Study Notes|
|Food: Where Does It comes from? Class 6 notes – Chapter 1||The Living Organisms And their Surroundings Class 6 notes – Chapter 9|
|Component of Food Class 6 notes – Chapter 2||Motion and Measurement of Distances Class 6 notes – Chapter 10|
|Fibre to Fabric Class 6 notes – Chapter 3||Light, Shadows and Reflection Class 6 notes – Chapter 11|
|Sorting Materials Into Groups Class 6 notes – Chapter 4||Electricity and Circuits Class 6 notes – Chapter 12|
|Separation of Substances Class 6 notes – Chapter 5||Fun with Magnets Class 6 notes – Chapter 13|
|Changes around Us Class 6 notes – Chapter 6||Water Class 6 notes – Chapter 14|
|Getting to Know Plants Class 6 notes – Chapter 7||Air Around Us Class 6 notes – Chapter 15|
|Body Movements Class 6 notes – Chapter 8||Garbage In, Garbage Out Class 6 notes – Chapter 16|
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