Science class 5 chapter 5 full details

Science class 5 chapter 5 full details

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Let’s see detailed overview for Science Chapter 5 for Class 5: Food Preservation, Food Spoilage, and Food Management.

Detailed Overview for Science Chapter 5 for Class 5

Food Preservation, Food Spoilage, and Food Management


Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals make up our food. Nutrients are the collective name for these substances.

Nutrients are required.

  • to provide us with the energy we need to complete our daily tasks
  • to develop
  • to help our bodies heal
  • to keep us safe from diseases and infections

The food we eat is high in one or more nutrients, but no food contains all of the essential nutrients. All nutrients are required for energy, growth, and a healthy body. Foods high in various nutrients should be included in our diet. A balanced diet is one that contains a balance of all essential nutrients.


  • Carbohydrates are a source of energy.
  • Carbohydrates are a macronutrient found in many different types of foods.


  • Fruits: both whole fruit and juice
  • Bread, rice, crackers, and cereal are examples of grains.
  • Potatoes and corns are examples of vegetables.
  • Sweet things and sugars


Fats provide us with energy. Fats are necessary, but not excessively so. Excess fats are stored in our bodies, clogging our blood vessels and causing heart disease.

Nuts, cheese, chocolates, whole eggs, meat, oils, and ghee are examples of fat-rich foods.


Proteins are a type of food that promotes muscle growth. They aid in the body’s repair and growth. They aid in muscle development. Eggs, fish, milk, cheese, and chicken are all good sources of protein.

Minerals and vitamins

  • Vitamins and minerals keep us healthy and keep us from getting sick. They keep us in good health. Protective foods are what they’re called.
  • Milk, fruits, and vegetables are great sources of vitamins and minerals, which are essential nutrients for our bodies.
  • Minerals are required for the formation of strong bones and teeth.
  • Milk is a good source of protein, vitamins, and minerals such as calcium.
  • Calcium is an important mineral that is essential for building and maintaining healthy bones and teeth.


  • Digestion is made easier with water.
  • Water aids in body temperature regulation.
  • Water makes up 50-65 percent of the average adult human body.


Roughage is the part of grains, vegetables, and fruits that cannot be digested. It is beneficial to digestion.

Food Spoilage and its factors

Food spoilage refers to the process of food becoming unfit or unsafe for consumption. This can happen due to a variety of factors, including:

  1. Microbial growth: Microorganisms like bacteria, yeasts, and molds can grow on food and cause spoilage. These microorganisms thrive in warm, moist environments and can cause food to spoil quickly.
  2. Enzymatic activity: Enzymes present in food can cause spoilage by breaking down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. For example, enzymes can cause fruit to become overripe and soft.
  3. Chemical reactions: Chemical reactions can cause spoilage by changing the color, flavor, and texture of food. Exposure to air, light, and heat can cause these reactions.
  4. Physical damage: Physical damage to food, such as bruising or crushing, can cause spoilage by providing a breeding ground for microorganisms.
  5. Time and temperature: Time and temperature are critical factors in food spoilage. When food is kept at room temperature for too long, or is stored at improper temperatures, it can spoil quickly.

To prevent food spoilage, it’s important to follow proper food storage and handling procedures. This includes keeping food at the right temperature, storing it in airtight containers, and using it within its expiration date. It’s also important to practice good hygiene and sanitation when handling food, and to avoid cross-contamination between different types of food.

Food Preservation

The process of keeping food fresh for a long time is known as food preservation.

Food preservation can be done in a number of ways:

  • Drying: Some foods are dried to keep them fresh for a longer period of time. dry fruits, for example
  • Refrigeration or freezing: Some foods are frozen to keep their flavor and nutritional value. frozen peas, for example
  • Pickling: Pickling is another method of food preservation.
  • Fermentation: Fermentation is another method of food preservation.
  • Canning: Canning is a method of preserving vegetables, meat, and other foods.
  • Sweetening: Sugar kills germs when it is added to food. Sugar enhances the flavor of the food. jellies, jams, etc.
  • Salting: When fish and other foods are salted, they become dehydrated.

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