Like a basketball or hockey team, the science Olympiad in grades 1–12 requires year-round practice, dedication, and coaching. Students from all over the world compete in the National Science Olympiad (NSO) exam, which is a global Olympiad competition. It provides a stage for up-and-coming talent to demonstrate their abilities. These exams are necessary for students to get ready for both domestic and foreign competitions. Science Chapter 1 for Class 4 is covered on this page.
Science Chapter 1 For Class 4: Plants: Life notes
Plants play an extremely important role on the planet. All other living things rely on them for food and oxygen. Plants can be found almost anywhere. They can be found on land, in mountains, in deserts, and even under the sea. We know that plants grow primarily from seeds when given enough water, sunlight, and air.
Parts of Plants
The root is the underground part of the plant that grows in the direction of gravity. It anchors the plant to the soil and absorbs water and mineral nutrients from it. It holds extra food.
Function of roots
- Roots anchor the plant to the ground. It gives the plant support and aids in keeping the plant firmly planted in the ground.
- The plant’s root hairs absorb water and minerals from the soil and transport them to the stem.
- Some roots, such as carrots and radishes, store food.
- Roots bind soil that would otherwise be blown away by wind or washed away by water. Roots keep soil from eroding.
It supports the plant’s upper parts. It transports water and nutrients required for plant growth from roots to leaves, as well as food produced by the leaves to other parts of the plant. Large trees, such as neem, mango, and peepal, have thick, woody stems. This type of stem is known as a trunk. Some plants, such as bananas, have thick but soft stems. Some plants, such as watermelon and money plants, have weak, soft, and green stems, as do climbers and creepers.
1. Stems provide above-ground support for the plant. It has leaves, branches, buds, flowers, and fruits.
2. Water and minerals are transported from the root to other parts of the plant by the stem. It also transports food made by the leaves to various parts of the plants.
3. Some underground stems store food like sugarcane, potato, ginger, and so on.
Leaves come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The outer surface of the leaf is protected by a waxy coating. The leaf blade or lamina is the flat surface of the leaf. Within the leaf, there are veins that run across it. Stomata, or tiny openings on the surface of the leaves, aid in gas exchange. Stomata are only visible under a microscope.
Function of Leaves
- These are the parts of the plant where food is produced through the photosynthesis process. That is why leaves are known as green plants’ food factories. Chlorophyll (green pigment) in the leaves converts sunlight energy into sugar and oxygen gas by converting water (H2O) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2).
- During the photosynthesis process, leaves emit oxygen. All living things require oxygen to survive.
- Some leaves, such as mint and cabbage, contain food.
Flowers are the most visually appealing part of a plant. Each flower type has a distinct physical structure, color, and scent from other flower types. Plant buds develop into flowers, which then mature into fruits that contain the seed or seeds. Some fruits, such as mango and cherry, only have one seed. Some fruits, such as papaya and watermelon, have a large number of seeds.
Uses of flower
- Many flowers, including rose and jasmine, are used to make perfume.
- Some flowers, such as cauliflower, broccoli, and banana, are edible.
- Some spices, such as saffron or Kesar, are obtained from flowers, such as crocus flowers, and cloves are dried flowers.
- Flowers are used to decorating for various occasions and to make bouquets, garlands, and rangoli.
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