The Earth has two types of motions, which lead to seasons and day-night patterns. These motions are – rotation around its axis and revolution around the Sun. Rotation means the movement of the earth on its axis. It rotates from the west towards the east. Revolution means the movement of the Earth around the Sun in a fixed path or orbit. This movement causes seasonal variations in different parts of the Earth. *NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Motions of the Earth.*

**NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Motions of the Earth**

**1. Answer the following questions briefly.**

**(a) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with its orbital plane?**

**Sol :**

The angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with its orbital plane is 66½°.

**(b) Define rotation and revolution.**

**Sol :**

The movement of the earth on its axis is called rotation. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or an orbit is called Revolution.

**(c) What is a leap year?**

**Sol :**

Every fourth year, February has 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year.

**(d) Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice.**

**Sol :**

**Summer Solstice**– When the Southern hemisphere experiences the winter season and it is summer in the northern hemisphere. Then, the position of the earth on 21st June is called the Summer Solstice.

**Winter Solstice**– When the Southern hemisphere experiences the summer season and the reverse occurs at the Northern hemisphere. Then, the position of the earth on 22nd December is called the Winter Solstice.

**(e) What is an equinox?**

**Sol :**

On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun. Therefore, the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox.

**(f) Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice at different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere?**

**Sol :**

The Earth is always revolving and it is divided into two hemispheres. The part of the earth which faces the sun experiences summer and the part away from the sun experiences winter. Therefore, the Southern Hemisphere experiences the Winter and Summer Solstice at different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere.

**(g) Why do the poles experience about six months day and six months night?**

**Sol :**

The Poles experience 6 months of day and six months of nights due to the inclination of the earth on its axis. This inclination keeps one pole towards the sun and another pole away from the sun for 6 months each. This is the reason behind this condition.

**2. Tick the correct answers.**

**(a) The movement of the earth around the sun is known as**

**(i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Inclination**

**Sol :**

(ii) Revolution

**(b) Direct rays of the sun fall on the equator on**

**(i) 21 March (ii) 21 June (iii) 22 December**

**Sol :**

(i) 21 March

**(c) Christmas is celebrated in summer in**

**(i) Japan (ii) India (iii) Australia**

**Sol :**

(iii) Australia

**(d) Cycle of the seasons is caused due to**

**(i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Gravitation**

**Sol :**

(ii) Revolution

**3. Fill in the blanks.**

**(a) A leap year has _______________ number of days.**

**Sol :**

A leap year has **366 **number of days.

**(b) The daily motion of the earth is _______________.**

**Sol :**

The daily motion of the earth is **rotation.**

**(c) The earth travels around the sun in ______________ orbit.**

**Sol :**

The earth travels around the sun in **an** **elliptical** orbit.

**(d) The sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of ___________ on 21st June.**

**Sol :**

The sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of **Cancer **on 21st June.

**(e) Days are shorter during ___________ season.**

**Sol :**

Days are shorter during **winter **season.

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