Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 5. Here we have given Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 Geography Chapter 5 Notes.
There are three main components of the environment – Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere.
The lithosphere forms the solid part of the Earth and contains landforms like plateaus, mountains, plains and valleys. The hydrosphere is the next layer and covers three-fourth of the Earth in the form of water bodies. The Atmosphere forms a protective layer and shields the Earth from the intense sun rays. The biosphere is the last domain of the Earth and is made up of all the plants and animals and all non-living things.
Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 5
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There are three main components of the environment –
The solid portion of the Earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere.
The gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth is the Atmosphere.
The area covered by water is called Hydrosphere.
The zone which contains all forms of life is called Biosphere.
- It comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin layers of soil.
- There are two main divisions of the earth’s surface.
- The large landmasses are known as the continents.
- The huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
- There are seven major continents.
- The greater part of the landmass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Asia is the largest continent.
- The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia.
- Africa is the second-largest continent. It is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass.
- North America is the third largest continent in the world.
- South America and North America are linked by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama.
- Australia is the smallest continent. It is also called an island continent.
- Antarctica is permanently covered with thick ice sheets. ,
- India has a research station named Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri in Antarctica.
- More than 71 % per cent of the Earth is covered with water, therefore, the Earth is called the blue planet.
- More than 97% of the Earth’s water is found in the oceans.
- The four major oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
- The Pacific Ocean is the largest.
- The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean.
- The Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country, that is, India.
- The Arctic Ocean is located within the Arctic Circle.
- The atmosphere protects us from the harmful effects of the sun’s rays.
- The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 kilometres.
- The atmosphere is divided into five layers—the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere.
- The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.
Biosphere – The Domain of Life
- The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between the land, water and air.
- All the living organisms including humans are linked to each other and the biosphere for survival.
- The organisms in the biosphere may broadly be divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.
- An increase in the amount of C02 leads to an increase in global temperature. This is termed global warming.
The earth is the only planet where human beings find three life sustaining elements—
There are seven major continents and these are separated by large water bodies.
- The largest continent on Earth is Asia.
- Asia is also the most populous continent on earth i.e. it is home to approximately 60% of the world’s population as of 2019.
- Asian continent occupies approximately 30% of the Earth’s total land area.
- To the south of the Asian continent lies the Indian Ocean, to its North lies the Arctic Ocean and to its East lies the Pacific Ocean.
- Asia and Africa are separated by the Suez Canal.
- Asia and Europe are separated by the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
- The 2nd largest continent on Earth in Africa. Africa covers 20% of the Earth’s total land area.
- Africa is also the 2nd most populous country on Earth.
- A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
- The Equator, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn passes through Africa. It holds the distinction of the only continent having all 3 latitudes passing through it.
- The world’s longest river Nile is in Africa. It has 2 main tributaries and passes through 11 countries. It flows from Tanzania located in the South of Africa and flows to Egypt located in the North of Africa. This is a Northward flowing river and is around 6650 km long.
- The largest hot desert on Earth is the Sahara Desert which is located in Africa. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the West, to the Red Sea located in the East. The Sahara Desert covers a large part of the African Continent. The Mediterranean Sea lies to the North of the Sahara Desert.
- Europe is the 6th largest continent of Earth, occupying around 2% of the surface of the Earth.
- Russia is the largest country on the European continent.
- Western Civilization was born in Europe.
- Atlantic Currents have the biggest influence on the European Continent.
- To the South of Europe lies the Atlantic Ocean, to the North of Europe lies the Arctic Ocean, to the West of Europe lies the Atlantic Ocean.
4. North America
- North America is the third largest continent in the world.
- The continent lies completely in the Northern and Western Hemisphere.
- The Isthmus of Panama is a narrow strip that links North America and South America.
- This continent is surrounded by three oceans and they are the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
5. South America
- There are 12 Sovereign States in South America.
- This Continent is located in the Southern Hemisphere. In terms of total area, South America is the 4th largest continent.
- The Pacific Ocean is located to the West of South America.
- To the East of South America lies the Atlantic Ocean.
- Brazil is the most populous country in South America.
- The Andes Mountain is the world’s longest above water Mountain range and it is located in South America.
- The world’s largest river is the Amazon river and it is located in South America.
- Australia is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.
- It is surrounded on all sides by the oceans and seas.
- It is called an island continent.
- Antarctica is a huge continent and lies completely in the Southern Hemisphere.
- The South Pole lies in the South Polar Region almost at the centre of this continent and is permanently covered with thick ice sheets.
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