CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 8-Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 8-Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

This chapter explains iron tools and agriculture, steps to increase production, lifestyle of the people living in villages. Students will also know the stories, travellers, sculpture and archaeology of cities. By reading this chapter, they will understand that wealth was measured in terms of coins. The chapter ends with a closer look at Arikamedu.CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 8 Vital Villages Thriving Towns

CBSE Notes Class 6 History Chapter 8-Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

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  • Iron Tools and Agriculture:

Iron came into use around 3000 years ago. About 2500 years ago, the use of iron tools increased. These included axes for clearing forests and expanding land and iron ploughshare in increasing production.

  • Landowners and Labourers:

In the south, large landowners (Vellalar), ploughmen (Ezhava), landless labourers and slaves (kadaisiyar and adimai) were amongst the main community members. In the northern parts, the village headman (grama bhojaka) was hereditary, who was the biggest landowner and used to collect taxes for the King.

  • The Earliest Tamil Compositions:

Sangam literature was composed 2300 years ago. It was called Sangao because it was written and compiled in Assemblies known as Sangams of Poets which were held in the city of Madurai.

  • Findings Of Cities:

Jatakas were stories composed by ordinary people, but written and preserved by Bud chest monks. Other kinds of evidence to find out about life in some of the early cities are sculptors’ carved scenes depicting people’s lives.

  • Cities and Travel Accounts:

Another way of finding out about early cities is from the accounts of sailors and travellers who visited these cities and kingdoms.

  • Coins:

Punch marked coins, which were in use for about 500 years, were called so because the designs were punched on to the metal- silver or copper.

  • Cities and its Functions:

Mathura was important because it was located on the crossroads of two major routes of travel and trade from the North-West to the East and from the North to South. Mathura was also a production centre of fine sculptures.

  • Crafts and Craft persons:

Extremely fine potteries known as the Northern Black Polished ware were produced. There were famous centres such as Varanasi in the North, and Madurai in the South.

  • Arikamedu:

Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu was a coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from distant lands. A massive brick structure, which may have been a warehouse, was found at the site.

In the Indian subcontinent, use of iron began about 3000 years ago. It developed more and more 2500 years ago. Axes and the iron ploughshare became popular.

New tools and the system of transplantation increased production, and irrigation also came into use.

In the Tamil region, there existed three kinds of people—the large landowners, the ordinary ploughmen and the landless labourers (including slaves).

In northern India, the village headman, independent farmers, workers, etc. lived in villages.

The Jatakas were stories that were composed presumably by ordinary people and written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.

These tales give light on the life of people in these times.

Ring wells (rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other) have been found in several cities. They were probably used as toilets or drains and garbage dumps.

Accounts of sailors and travellers depict life in early cities. The account of an unknown Greek sailor tells about Bharuch.

Archaeologists have found several coins belonging to this period. Designs were punched onto the metal to prepare them.

Mathura, an important settlement for more than 2500 years. It was located at the crossroads of two important travel and trade routes. It became the capital of the Kushanas about 2000 years ago. It was also a religious centre.

Archaeologists have also found evidence for crafts, like the extremely fine pottery called Northern Black Polished Ware. There were famous cloth centres at Varanasi and Madurai. Craftspersons and merchants formed associations called ‘shrines’, that helped them in their work.

Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, Arikamedu was a coastal settlement.

  • Ring Wells:

Rows of pots, or ceramic rings arranged one over the other is known as ring wells.

  • Sangam’ Literature:

Ancient Tamil texts that were composed in assemblies called ‘Sangams’ have been referred to as the ‘Sangam’ literature.

  • Shreni’:

An association of craftspersons and merchants was called ‘shreni’. ‘Shrenis’ provided training, raw material, etc. They also served as banks.

  • The Jatakas:

These were stories probably composed by ordinary people and then written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.

  • About 3000 years ago. (around 1000 B.C.) – beginning of the use of iron in the Indian subcontinent.
  • 2500 years ago (around 500 B.C.) – increase in the use of iron, development of cities and the punch-marked coins.
  • 2300 years ago (around 300 B.C.) – the ‘Sangam’ literature.
  • Between 2200 and 1900 years ago between C.100 B.C. and C.100 A.D.) –  settlement in Arikamedu (in Puducherry).

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CBSE Notes for Class 6 Geography Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Geography

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 Geography Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
The Earth in the Solar SystemThe Earth in the Solar System Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 1NCERT Solutions The Earth in the Solar System Chapter 1
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MapsMaps Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 4NCERT Solutions Maps Chapter 4
Major Domains of the EarthMajor Domains of the Earth Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Major Domains of the Earth Chapter 5
Major Landforms of the EarthMajor Landforms of the Earth Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 6NCERT Solutions Major Landforms of the Earth Chapter 6
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CBSE Notes for Class 6 History Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 History

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 History Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
What, Where, How And When?What, Where, How And When? Class 6 Notes History Chapter 1NCERT Solutions What, Where, How And When? Chapter 1
From Gathering To Growing FoodFrom Gathering To Growing Food Class 6 Notes History Chapter 2NCERT Solutions From Gathering To Growing Food Chapter 2
In The Earliest CitiesIn The Earliest Cities Class 6 Notes History Chapter 3NCERT Solutions In The Earliest Cities Chapter 3
What Books And Burials Tell UsWhat Books And Burials Tell Us Class 6 Notes History Chapter 4NCERT Solutions What Books And Burials Tell Us Chapter 4
Kingdoms, Kings And An Early RepublicKingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic Class 6 Notes History Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Kingdoms, Kings And An Early Republic Chapter 5
New Questions And IdeasNew Questions And Ideas Class 6 Notes History Chapter 6NCERT Solutions New Questions And Ideas Chapter 6
Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up WarAshoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War Class 6 Notes History Chapter 7NCERT Solutions Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War Chapter 7
Vital Villages, Thriving TownsVital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes History Chapter 8NCERT Solutions Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Chapter 8
Traders, Kings And PilgrimsTraders, Kings And Pilgrims Class 6 Notes History Chapter 9NCERT Solutions Traders, Kings And Pilgrims Chapter 9
New Empires And KingdomsNew Empires And Kingdoms Class 6 Notes History Chapter 10NCERT Solutions New Empires And Kingdoms Chapter 10
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CBSE Notes for Class 6 Civics Free Download for All Chapters

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Civics

Chapter NameCBSE Class 6 Civics Study NotesNCERT Solutions Download Class 6
Understanding DiversityUnderstanding Diversity Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 1NCERT Solutions Understanding Diversity Chapter 1
Diversity and DiscriminationDiversity and Discrimination Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 2NCERT Solutions Diversity and Discrimination Chapter 2
What is Government?What is Government? Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 3NCERT Solutions What is Government? Chapter 3
Key Elements of a Democratic GovernmentKey Elements of a Democratic Government Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 4NCERT Solutions Key Elements of a Democratic Government Chapter 4
Panchayati RajPanchayati Raj Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 5NCERT Solutions Panchayati Raj Chapter 5
Rural AdministrationRural Administration Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 6NCERT Solutions Rural Administration Chapter 6
Urban AdministrationUrban Administration Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 7NCERT Solutions Urban Administration Chapter 7
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Urban LivelihoodsUrban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Civics Chapter 9NCERT Solutions Urban Livelihoods Chapter 9

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