A globe is a spherical model of Earth. It serves similar purposes as maps. A model globe of Earth is called a terrestrial globe. A model globe of the celestial sphere is called a celestial globe. Globe Latitudes and Longitudes Class 6 Notes Geography Chapter 2
Latitude is a measurement on a globe or map of location north or south of the Equator. Its measurement starts from an imaginary north-south line called the Prime Meridian.
Longitude is a measurement of location east or west of the prime meridian at Greenwich. Latitude is an angle, which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles.
Globe Latitudes and Longitudes Class 6 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 2
- Globe: The globe is a model of the earth, as it is, but in a very small and convenient form. It shows all continents, countries, and oceans, labelled.
- Axis: The imaginary line about which the earth rotates once in 24 hours is called its axis.
- Equator: The circle passing through the centre of the earth, and perpendicular to the axis, is called the equator.
- All parallel circles from the Equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitude. Latitude is measured in degrees.
- As we move away from the Equator, the size of the parallels of latitude decreases.
- Poles: The two extreme points of the axis are called the Poles. One of them is the North Pole and the other is the South Pole.
- Prime Meridian: The circle passing through Greenwich in Britain, and perpendicular to the equator, and parallel to the axis, is called the Prime Meridian.
The four important parallels of latitude are :
- Tropic of Cancer (231/2°N)
- Tropic of Capricorn (231/22°S)
- Arctic of Circle (661/2 °N)
- Antarctic Circle (661/2 °S)
Heat Zones of the Earth
- Torrid zone receives the maximum heat.
- The temperate zone has a moderate temperature.
- The frigid zone has a cold climate as the sun rays are always slanting.
- The line of reference running from the North Pole to the South Pole is called Meridians of Longitude.
- The distance between them is measured in ‘degrees of longitude’.
- All meridians are of equal length.
- The meridian which passes through Greenwich, where the British Royal Observatory is located, is called the Prime Meridian.
- The value of Prime Meridian is 0° longitude and from it, we count 180° Eastward as well as 180° Westward.
- Prime Meridian divides the earth into two halves, the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.
- 180° East and 180° West meridians are on the same line.
- We can locate any point on the globe if we know its latitude and longitude.
Longitude and Time
- As the earth rotates from West to East, those places East of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and those to the West will be behind it.
- The earth rotates 360° in about 24 hours.
- At any place, a watch can be adjusted to read at noon when the Sun is at the highest point in the sky.
- The local times in various places are different, so it is necessary to adopt the local time of some central meridian of a country as the Standard Time.
- 82 1/2 0E is treated as the Standard Meridian of India. The local time at this meridian is known as the Indian Standard Time (IST).
- India located East of Greenwich at 82° 30’E, is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT.
- Some countries have a great longitudinal extent and so they have adopted more than one standard time.
The Globe is a true model of the earth, in a small form. A needle, called the Axis is fixed through the globe in a tilted manner.
The axis of the globe passes through two extreme points: known as the Poles (the North Pole and the South Pole). This axis is shown in the form of a needle on the globe. The real earth has no such axis.
- Hemisphere: One of the two halves of the earth’s spherical shape is called a hemisphere. If the earth is halved along the equator, we get the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. If we halve it perpendicular to the equator, we get the Eastern and the Western Hemispheres.
- Heat Zones: Heat zones are the different zones of the earth, where the sun’s rays fall differently, thus causing different climate patterns. These zones are called the Torrid Zone, the two Temperate Zones, and the two Frigid Zones.
- Greenwich: Greenwich is a place in the United Kingdom, near London, whose time is used as a standard all over the world. The Prime Meridian passes through this place, and so it is the place which divides the earth into the Eastern and the Western Hemispheres.
- Standard Time: Standard time of a country or region is the time regarded as a standard for that place, even though there exists a time difference geographically across that region. It is used only for convenience.
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