Body Movements Class 6 notes – Chapter 8

Body Movements Class 6 notes – Chapter 8

CBSE Class 6 Science Notes Chapter 8 Body Movements

Welcome to School Connect Online! In this chapter, we’ll dive into the fascinating world of body movements. We’ll start by exploring the human skeletal system, its functions, and its components in detail. Then, we’ll take a closer look at the various types of body movements humans are capable of.

But that’s not all – we’ll also explore how animals move their bodies. You’ll learn about the skeletal systems of different animals and how they allow for unique movements and adaptations. From the slithering of snakes to the soaring of birds, we’ll cover it all.

So get ready to stretch your mind and body as we delve into the world of body movements with School Connect Online.

Chapter : 8 – Body Movements

The different topics covered in CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 8 are tabulated below:

8.1Human Body and Its Movements
8.2“Gait of Animals”

Ex: 8.1 – Human Body and Its Movements

Movement :

As we grow and develop, our body movements become more refined and complex. In our early years, we start with the basic movements of rolling, crawling, and eventually walking. These movements are essential for developing strength, coordination, and balance.

Skeletal System

  • The human body’s framework is supported by a system of bones called the skeleton. This structure is made up of bones and cartilage, providing a foundation for our bodies to move and function.
  • With around 650 muscles attached to various bones throughout the body, the skeleton enables us to perform a wide range of physical activities, from running and jumping to simply sitting and standing.
  • Bones are the harder and more rigid component of the skeletal system, while cartilage is comparatively softer and more elastic. Together, bones and cartilage work to protect our organs and provide structure to our bodies.

Functions of skeleton

  • The skeletal system provides essential support to the body and protects vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Along with the muscles, it gives the body its shape and enables us to move.
  • The bones also play a critical role in the production of blood cells. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, are produced in the bone marrow, along with some white blood cells that help fight infection and disease.


The movement of bones in the body is achieved through the action of muscles. There are two sets of muscles involved in this process, which alternate between contractions and relaxations to create movement.

Muscles are a type of tissue in the body that primarily functions as a source of power. They work by contracting and relaxing in response to signals from the nervous system, which allows us to move our bodies in a wide range of ways.

There are three main types of muscle in the body:

  • Skeletal muscle is responsible for moving the extremities and external areas of the body. It is attached to bones by tendons and works in pairs to create movement.
  • Cardiac muscle, as the name suggests, is found in the heart. This muscle is specialized to contract rhythmically and continuously to pump blood throughout the body.
  • Smooth muscle is found in the walls of organs such as arteries, the bowel, and the uterus. It is responsible for involuntary movements, such as the contraction of blood vessels or the movement of food through the digestive system.


  • Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is not as hard as bone and has a more flexible, bendable structure. It can be found in various parts of the body, including the ears, nose, and joints.
  • In the upper part of the ear and the tip of the nose, cartilage helps provide shape and structure to these body parts. In the joints, such as the knee or shoulder, cartilage acts as a cushion between bones, helping to reduce friction and absorb shock.


The area where two bones are attached permits body parts to move.

  • Joints are the points where two or more bones in the skeletal system are connected to each other, allowing movement and flexibility.
  • There are several types of joints in the body, including ball-and-socket joints, hinge joints, and pivot joints. These joints can be found throughout the body, including the hip joint, elbow joint, knee joint, and many others.

Ball and socket joint:

In the ball-and-socket joint, the rounded end of one bone fits into the concave cavity of another bone, creating a highly mobile joint with a wide range of motion.

Pivotal joint:

The pivotal joint is a type of joint that allows for rotational movement between two bones. In the human body, the pivotal joint can be found at the top of the spinal column where the neck joins the head.

At this point, a cylindrical bone called the axis rotates within a ring-shaped bone called the atlas, allowing for a wide range of motion in the neck and head. This joint enables us to bend the head forward and backwards, as well as turn the head to the left or right.

Hinge joint:

A hinge joint is a type of joint that allows for movement in only one direction, similar to a door hinge. This type of joint is found in several parts of the body, including the fingers, elbows, and knees.

The hinge joint is designed to allow for flexion and extension in a single plane, with the movement occurring around a single axis.

Fixed joints:

Fixed joints, also known as immovable or fibrous joints, are joints that do not allow for any movement between the two bones they connect. These joints are held together by tough, fibrous connective tissue and provide stability and protection to certain parts of the body.

Examples of fixed joints include the joints between the bones of the skull and the upper jaw. These joints are important for protecting the brain and other delicate structures within the skull, as well as for providing structural support to the head and face.

Ex: 8.2 – “Gaits of Animals”

The movement of animals is made possible by the coordinated action of their muscles and bones. The pattern of limb movement during locomotion is known as the animal’s gait. The gait of lower animals, such as insects and reptiles, differs from that of larger animals, such as mammals and birds.

While the movements of animals may vary, they all rely on the coordinated action of their muscles and body structures to achieve locomotion. Understanding these movements can provide insight into the unique adaptations and behaviours of different animal species.

Earthworms :

The body of an earthworm is composed of many rings connected end to end. Unlike animals with bones, earthworms rely solely on their muscles to move. During movement, the earthworm extends the front part of its body while keeping the rear portion fixed to the ground. Next, it fixes the front end and releases the rear end, allowing it to pull the rear end forward and shorten the body. This process is repeated in a wave-like motion along the length of the body, enabling the earthworm to move forward through the soil.

Snail :

The rounded structure on the back of a snail is called the shell, which is the outer skeleton of the snail. However, it is not made of bones and does not aid in movement. Instead, the snail has to drag the shell along as it moves. The snail can retract its head inside the shell for protection.

To move, the snail extends a thick structure known as the foot out of an opening in the shell. The foot is composed of strong muscles and helps in movement. The under-surface of the muscular foot is lubricated with mucus, which reduces the risk of injury from sharp objects and aids in movement. Waves of muscular contractions along the surface of the foot allow the snail to move.

Cockroach :

Body Movements Class 6 notes – Chapter 8 – School Connect Online
  • The body of a cockroach is covered with a hard exoskeleton that is made of different segments joined together.
  • It has three pairs of legs for walking and two pairs of wings attached to the thorax for flying.
  • Cockroaches have well-developed muscles that are used for movement.
  • The muscles attached to the legs help in walking, running and climbing.
  • The thoracic muscles attached to the wings help in flying, although cockroaches are not considered strong fliers.

Birds :

Birds have several adaptations that allow them to fly. One of the most important adaptations is their lightweight body structure. Their bones are hollow and filled with air sacs, which makes them lighter and more aerodynamic. In addition, their feathers are designed to reduce air resistance and generate lift. Birds also have powerful chest muscles that help them flap their wings and maintain flight.

While flying is a primary mode of transportation for birds, they are also able to walk on the ground using their two legs. The shape and structure of their legs and feet are adapted for walking, with many species having specialized toes for perching or grasping prey. Some birds, such as ducks and swans, are also adapted for swimming in water with their webbed feet and waterproof feathers.

One interesting fact about birds is that they do not have a urinary bladder like most other animals. Instead, their kidneys excrete waste in the form of uric acid, which is expelled along with faeces. This adaptation helps birds conserve water and maintain their lightweight body structure.

Snakes :

Snakes have a unique body structure that allows them to move in a distinctive manner. Their long and flexible spine is supported by many thin muscles, which are connected despite being far apart. These interconnected muscles help the snake to slither and move around.

Fish :

The head and tail of the fish are smaller than the middle portion of the body, and the body tapers at both ends. This body shape is called streamlined. The shape is such that water can flow around it easily and allow the fish to move fast in the water. The skeleton of the fish is covered with strong muscles, which are arranged in blocks called myotomes.

Snakes :

Body Movements Class 6 notes – Chapter 8 – School Connect Online

Snakes do not have legs for movement but instead rely on their long, flexible backbone and the muscles that surround it. By curving their body into many loops and pressing against the ground, snakes are able to move forward with each loop giving them a push. This allows them to slither and move smoothly even on rough surfaces.

Conclusion :

The hinge joint only allows movement in one direction, found in the fingers, elbows, and knees. Muscles move bones. Pelvic bones are in the hip region. The neck joint is a pivotal joint. The ribs and backbone form the rib cage. Earthworms move using muscles and tiny bristles. Snails move with a muscular feet. Cockroaches have hard outer skeletons with muscles for walking and flying. Birds fly with light bones and strong muscles. Fish swim with a streamlined bodies. Snakes slither by looping sideways with many bones and muscles.

CBSE Notes for Class 6 Science Free Download for All Chapters

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Body movements class 6 notes NCERT solutions

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