CBSE Class 12 chemistry for the academic year 2020-2021
Class 12 is undoubtedly a crucial academic year for students, as it sets the foundation for their bright future. With the high stakes and intense competition, the pressure can be overwhelming, especially in the field of science, which includes subjects like Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.
Among these, CBSE Class 12 Chemistry is often considered particularly challenging and intimidating for many students. The level of dedication and effort put in by students during this year can greatly impact their academic success and future prospects.
Download Class 12 Revised Chemistry Syllabus PDF 2020-21
CBSE Class 12 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 2020-2021
Check subject-wise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 9 syllabus from the following links:
CBSE class 12 Chemistry Notes: Chapter wise
|CBSE Chemistry Notes For Class 12|
|Chapter 1 – The Solid State|
|Chapter 2 – Solutions|
|Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry|
|Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics|
|Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry|
|Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
|Chapter 7 – The p-Block Elements|
|Chapter 8 – The d-and f-Block Elements|
|Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds|
|Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|Chapter 13 – Amines|
|Chapter 14 – Biomolecules|
|Chapter 15 – Polymers (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
|Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life (Complete chapter removed from syllabus for 2020-21 academic session)|
PART 1 :
Chapter 1 – The Solid State
Solids exhibit definite volume, shape, and mass due to the close proximity of particles and strong intermolecular forces that hold them in fixed positions.
Chapter 2 – Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, consisting of a solute and a solvent. Solutions can be classified into three types: solid solutions, gaseous solutions, and liquid solutions. Concentration of a solution can be expressed using terms like molarity, mole fraction, percentages, and molality.
Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry
An electrochemical cell is a device that generates a potential difference between electrodes through chemical reactions. It consists of two electron conductors separated by an ionic conductor, and the electrodes are immersed in the electrolytic solution. Ionic conductor plays a crucial role in the functioning of the cell.
Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics
Chemical kinetics is the study of the rate of chemical reactions, including the formation of intermediates, rearrangement of atoms, and the effect of various variables. Factors such as catalysts, concentration of reactants, and temperature can affect the rate of a reaction, which cannot be predicted but determined experimentally. Rate law provides a mathematical representation of the rate of reaction.
Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry
Adsorption is the process of attracting and retaining molecules of a substance on the surface of a solid, leading to higher concentration on the surface compared to the bulk. The extent of adsorption depends on factors like surface area of the solid, temperature of the gas, nature of the gas, pressure of the gas, and nature of the solid.
Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Metals are essential for various applications, and extracting them from mineral resources in a commercially viable manner is crucial. Ores, which are minerals containing the metal, are usually extracted and undergo concentration steps to remove impurities up to a certain limit.
Subsequently, the ore is chemically treated to obtain metals, often using reducing agents like CO, carbon, etc., which reduce the metal compound to metal.
Chapter 7 – The p-Block Elements
The p-Block elements are the elements in groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table, with a valence shell electronic configuration of ns2np1-6. Since we have already discussed groups 13 and 14 in the previous class, this chapter will cover the remaining groups of p-Block elements.
Chapter 8 – The d-and f-Block Elements
The d-block elements are located in the middle layer of the periodic table, with the inner d orbitals of groups 3 to 13 progressively filled. On the other hand, f-block elements are found outside at the bottom of the periodic table, with 5f and 4f orbitals progressively filled.
Three series of transition elements are recognized based on the filling of 3d, 4d, and 5d orbitals. These elements exhibit high boiling and melting points and display metallic properties such as electrical conductivity, malleability, thermal conductivity, high tensile strength, metallic character, and ductility.
Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds are a challenging area in modern inorganic chemistry, with advancements in concepts such as bonding models, molecular structure, and insights into the functioning of complex components in biological systems.
PART 2 :
Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes and haloarenes are important classes of organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbons are replaced with halogen atoms. Haloalkanes are derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes), while haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.
Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Ethers, alcohols, and phenols are categorized based on the group attached to an oxygen atom and the number of hydroxyl groups present. Ethers are classified based on the substituent attached to oxygen, while phenols and alcohols are categorized based on the number of hydroxyl groups and the hybridization of the carbon atom to which the -OH group is attached.
Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones are important organic compounds containing carbonyl groups. These molecules are polar and have higher boiling points compared to hydrocarbons and weakly polar compounds such as ethers of similar molecular masses.
Lower members of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones are highly water-soluble due to hydrogen bonding with water, while higher members have large hydrophobic carbon chains and are insoluble in water. Aldehydes can be prepared by controlled oxidation of primary alcohols or dehydrogenation, and ketones can be obtained by careful or controlled reduction of acyl halides.
Chapter 13 – Amines
Amines are derived from ammonia by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with aryl or alkyl groups. Primary amines have one alkyl or aryl group attached to the nitrogen atom, while secondary amines have two alkyl or aryl groups, and tertiary amines have three alkyl or aryl groups.
Amines behave as Lewis bases due to the presence of an unshared electron pair on the nitrogen atom. They can be synthesized from halides, amides, nitro compounds, or imides.
Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Glucose is obtained from the digestion of starch, and polysaccharides and disaccharides are formed by linking monosaccharides through glycosidic linkages. Proteins are chains of twenty different α-amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Some amino acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet, known as essential amino acids. Proteins carry out various dynamic and structural functions and are classified as simple proteins, secondary proteins, or tertiary proteins.
Denaturation of proteins occurs when there is a change in pH or temperature, affecting their function. Enzymes are a type of protein that increases the rate of chemical reactions and exhibit high selectivity and specificity in their action.
Chapter 15 – Polymers
Polymers are high molecular mass macromolecules that are derived from monomers, consisting of repeating structural units. They can be found in natural or synthetic forms and are classified based on their origin, structure, and other factors.
Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemistry plays a crucial role in the development of new materials for the betterment of humanity. Drugs, which are chemical agents that affect human metabolism to cure illnesses, can also have potential side effects if taken in excess of the recommended dose. Chemotherapy, for example, utilizes chemicals for therapeutic effects.
Drugs interact with specific target molecules in the body, such as carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. They are carefully designed to interact with specific targets to minimize side effects. Drug chemistry plays a significant role in releasing mental stress, combating microbes, preventing infectious diseases, and other aspects of healthcare.
More Reference Links –
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